Planning industrial buildings

The planning and quality construction of a contemporary industrial building is a complex task requiring carefully selected specialists and a team that works together effectively, and above all it requires a high standard.

We aim to plan modern industrial buildings that comply with the expectations and prescriptions of the age. The planning process is a complex engineering task that has an effect on every element of the building.



Planning programme


After performing a precise survey of the development requirements and plans, we set up a planning programme, which is an important part of the collaboration with our future clients.

The planning programme includes:

  • the precise determination of the technology,
  • the required spatial relations,
  • the number of areas/spaces/rooms planned,
  • the types of the areas and rooms and how they will be used,
  • the approximate sizes of the areas and rooms,
  • the ratio of the sexes and the number of employees working in the building




Plot selection aspects


When designing industrial buildings, strategic planning and a feasibility study are especially important, because industrial buildings have special functions, which means a great number of aspects have to be taken into consideration. Such aspects include, for example, workforce supply, transport connections, raw materials supply, the amount and quality of the market outlets, environmental protection, the public utility supply (water, electricity, sewerage). When selecting the location, important factors may include the local relief characteristics, the risk of groundwater, wind direction and even the existence of waste disposal facilities as well.


During the planning process, we select the optimal location of the planned industrial building through a multilevel iteration process, the characteristic levels of which are as follows:

  • selection of the appropriate region for the facility,
  • specification of the location within the region, industrial zone or industrial park,
  • positioning of the buildings and building groups within the plot



Building types


We offer the planning of industrial buildings that have any function; however, within this field, we have obtained outstanding experience in the development of industrial and logistics parks.


But what is an industrial park?

Industrial parks are groups of facilities set up in a single industrial area that has public utilities installed in advance and a large proportion of green area. The fact that the buildings are arranged in a group as opposed to isolated developments has the advantage of common public utilities, physical infrastructure and common services.


Industrial parks are characteristically located at air and land transport junctions. As a result, they operate effectively in the vicinity of international airports, ports, railway stations and motorways.


Logistics parks

These are a special sub-group of industrial park, in which the industrial buildings include facilities typically used for logistics and warehousing functions.


The number and the quality of the logistics units should be specified by planners who have the necessary experience and the relevant professional background. The business successfulness and profitability of a logistics development largely depend on which logistics buildings are installed in the park in accordance with market needs. Maximising operating results may only be achieved through nearly full occupancy of the logistics buildings, which may only be ensured with quality buildings. The secret of a good strategy is the selection of logistics systems that comply with the market needs, finding the right mix of buildings with different ground plan systems and their installation on the plot in line with the optimal transport system of the area.


The recommended process of carrying out and scheduling the construction and development of the system:

  • the construction of the infrastructure on the different logistics function areas in a way and to the schedule that conforms to real market needs,
  • the method of construction of the warehouse buildings on the individual areas should be according to “Build-to-Suit” property development,
  • the installation of competitive logistics function systems in the individual warehouses may be planned in the knowledge of the concrete tenants and the tenant needs.


Types of logistics unit:

“BIG-BOX” logistics warehouses and the logistics functions connected to this

  • distribution function, finishing, and co-packing
  • warehouse arrangement: go-through or head warehouse
  • construction method: modular, may be divided for several tenants

Cross-Docking city supply warehouses

  • direct cross-docking function: the preparation and picking of products for direct transportation to retail units
  • warehouse arrangement: go-through warehouse
  • entry into storage: characteristically by truck but it is also possible via a rail connection
  • removal: urban goods supply tasks characteristically performed using smaller vehicles with an environmentally friendly drive

Commercial warehouses, usually subordinated to the commercial function

  • background storage, or distribution function, or finishing
  • warehouse arrangement: go-through or head warehouse
  • construction method: modular, may be divided for several tenants


With respect to the warehouse arrangement we differentiate between two types of warehouse: head warehouse, and go-through warehouse. The interiors of both types of warehouse are divided into three parts: entry, removal-picking and storage areas. If entry and the removal take place on the same side then this is a head warehouse and if they take place on opposite sides then this is called a go-through warehouse. The go-through warehouse type is preferable in the case of large goods turnover, especially if entry and removal take place simultaneously. In other cases, a head warehouse is the better solution.

In the case of a head warehouse, the ideal building width or entry depth is 60-80 m. In the case of go-through warehouses, the optimal distance between the entry and removal areas is a maximum of 120 m.



Fire protection characteristics


Selecting the fire safety system appropriately will influence the likelihood of the occurrence of fire, the risk to human safety and the degree of material damage.


The observance of fire protection legislation, its optimal and cost-effective application is one of the most important tasks when planning industrial buildings. Fire protection planning aspects include, for example, setting up the appropriate fire and smoke sections, determining the method of heat and smoke extraction, choosing the extinguishing system, and locating the control centre.


The fire protection specifications generally applied in the case of logistics buildings:

Fire protection: active, sprinkler system

Warehouse fire-risk class: „C”

Warehouse fire-resistance class: „I”

Floor area of a fire section: < 8000 m²

Permitted specific fire load value: Tfa > 6000 MJ/m²



Location plan


The planner must take numerous aspects into consideration when specifying the locations of the buildings and building groups on the plot:

  • setting up a logical and transparent system (buildings, roads and green areas)
  • goods traffic must be separated from pedestrian traffic, if possible
  • the possibility of extending the buildings must be ensured at the planning stage
  • examining orientation, insolation, wind direction and natural lighting
  • locating the buildings in accordance with the order of production, with this ensuring the shortest path for the raw material and the finished product.
  • maintaining fire distances between the buildings, ensuring that buildings can be walked or driven around
  • meeting security requirements
  • development indicators and authority prescriptions
  • environmental features


At the beginning of the designing process, after the planning programme has been drawn up, we create an Concept Plan. According to the planning contract, we draw up 2-3 markedly different outlines or concepts, from which you can easily select the one you find the most suitable.


The purpose of the outline plan is to establish:

  • the positioning of the building within the plot,
  • the space connections,
  • the ground plan arrangement,
  • and the mass form.


In general the outline plan includes the following:

  • general plan in 1:500 scale,
  • ground plans in 1:200 scale,
  • cross-sections in 1:200 scale,
  • mass outlines drawn in freehand, or with a simplified 3D model,
  • sketches and freehand outlines
  • short technical description


The planning process of industrial buildings step-by-step


During the planning process, we precisely determine the time scheduling of the development, the individual planning phases and their deadlines. These phases are as follows:

  • Strategic planning – Determining the planning programme
  • Feasibility examination – Plot selection – Development outline plan – Marketing package
  • Outline plan
  • Detailed planning – Construction permit plan
  • Tender plan – Offer plan
  • Construction plan
  • Architect site supervision
  • Implementation